The cornea is a transparent structure located at the front of the eye and is a very powerful lens in the optical system of the eye.
The cornea has 5 layers, and according to the layer that is affected, today we have technology that allows us to replace only the diseased layer of the cornea. Corneal transplant is surgery to replace the diseased cornea lost its transparency, or deformed by the donor.
The inflammatory and infectious processes of the cornea are grouped under the term of keratitis; if the conjunctiva is affected at the same time, they are called keratoconjunctivitis. In general, they are focal defects of the corneal epithelium. Sometimes they attend asymptomatically.
- Corneal ulcers
The corneal stroma is usually affected, but they are preceded by an epithelial alteration.
All ulcers present with acute pain, ciliary hyperemia, decreased visual acuity, lacrimation and photophobia.
Keratoconus is an unusual disease, in which the cornea is abnormally thin and protrudes forward.
Keratoconus literally means a cone-shaped cornea.
The blurred vision and distortion of the images are the first symptoms, which usually appear at the end of the first decade and at the beginning of the second decade. In the first studies, the vision may be only slightly affected, causing glare, sensitivity to light and irritation.
Dystrophies and Degenerations
They constitute a series of primary alterations of the cornea, usually hereditary and bilateral, that do not present inflammatory signs or neovascularization and that, in some cases, are accompanied by systemic diseases. The treatment is, in all cases, the cornea transplant.